|Title||Winkler, Fred Bernhard -- CCHS OHPTranscript|
|Object Name||Oral History|
|Creator||Chevy Chase Historical Society|
Winkler, Fred Bernhard, December 13, 2004 -- Transcript of Interview with the
Chevy Chase Historical Society Oral History Project
Interviewed by Adrian Kinnane, History Associates Incorporated
Adrian Kinnane: I would like to ask about your family's coming to this county around the turn of the century, and how it came to be that they settled in this area?
Fred Winkler: That's not a mystery, but it's an intriguing story. My father was born in Veltheim, Switzerland, in 1876, and grew up there, and my mother did also. She was Hermine Thalman. Actually he thought about being a cobbler. And he had some tools, which he brought with him, and he repaired our shoes while we were young. He gave up the shoes and worked in France for probably four years, in a nursery near Paris. I remember he said that the workers, the French workers-he lived with the family in those days-they all told him, oh, you speak better French than we do. I guess he took that as a compliment. He was also in Paris in 1900, for the Worlds Fair, when they dedicated the Eiffel Tower. He remembered that. And he walked all the way to the Riviera one summer just to see France. He was a curious person. He had really wide interests. Beyond that, he undoubtedly was learning some English and decided to come to the United States in '02.
FW: 1902. He worked on Long Island at a nursery for some time, maybe a year or more, I'm not sure. He didn't talk about that a lot. But from there, he contacted a French family he knew of, and I don't know their name, who lived in Cherrydale, Virginia which has been absorbed by Falls Church. I remember going there with them as a little boy on at least two occasions to visit that family. They had a greenhouse and a nursery, but we just visited on Sunday afternoon in our Model T Ford. Anyhow, they apparently knew or had a connection with someone in Chevy Chase and knew that there was a position open in a greenhouse. So my father made that contact. And very soon after he went back to Switzerland and was married in 1904. They came to Chevy Chase and he worked at the greenhouse. They lived on Rosemary Street opposite the site of the Chevy Chase elementary school.
AK:Where that school is now.
FW: Are you familiar with that?
AK:Right on the circle. Rosemary Circle.
FW: Right, right off of Rosemary Circle. You know Rosemary Circle, with the water tower.
AK:Well, the tower's not there, I've seen pictures of the tower.
FW: Anyhow, that's where they lived and worked. I have no written items, but I have pictures of them standing in front of the house with the tower in the background.
AK:So he and your mother lived on the . . .
FW: On Rosemary, across the street from the school, in a small house. Sometime in that period of early 1900s the town apparently included in their contract of sale that there be no commercial activity. So I guess he got the message that he wasn't . . . so that initiated the movement.
AK:Now, did he own that business?
FW: I don't know whether he owned it. I don't think so. I think there was a man named Brooks. And I don't know if he was associated with an estate called "No Gain" It was one of the old early farm estates at the edge, the east side, of Brookville Road. My father stayed there for a period, I guess, before he went back to Switzerland, this is going back a bit, in just a one room cabin. I don't know how he ate or anything about it, but he survived. To get back on track, it was back in 1907 they had their first child. In '09 they had their second child. And that's when they decided they were going to move and found this land right here, starting behind these two lots on Jones Mill Road, and to the creek. He bought that, and built the greenhouse and moved the house by horse and wagon. The house was just a panel house, sort of like today's prefabs, built in five foot sections that they put together-you could tear it down, break it down. Now the family stayed temporarily with a Swiss family, Hamerli, who worked and lived on the estate on Jones Bridge Road and Connecticut Avenue. It was Hayes Manor, it's still there, it's one of the fine colonial homes in Montgomery County. They worked a little farm. He was a Swiss man, his family was with him; the Swiss stuck together to help each other. They must have stayed there for a period of time until they got the house put back together.
AK:Did your father, at some point, purchase that greenhouse business?
FW: I don't think it was a viable business really. I mean, it was a very small thing, and I don't know whether he bought the greenhouse and tore that down too. I think that was severed and there was no connection. But he ended up building two greenhouses out here on the land bordering on Rock Creek. They owned the land at that time. The park wasn't there. And they owned right to the creek.
AK:So that business ended actually because the town of Chevy Chase put in a restriction on commercial activities?
FW: There was a grocery store-Sonnemann's was one of the old names in Chevy Chase.
AK:On Brookville Road?
FW: On Brookville Road. I think High's ended up taking over, and then it burnt down one night. And now there's a little park there. But I remember stopping there. They had a front porch . . . but then they also established later the little commercial center down at Taylor Street and Brookville Road, which still exists. They loosened the restrictions in time. They had to have some businesses, especially the grocery store.
AK:So your father and your mother moved that house.
FW: Actually out of the town.
AK:Piece by piece by horse and carriage.
FW: Horse and wagon.
AK:Horse and wagon. And in that house you were born?
FW: Yes. In 1917, a twin. I had a twin sister, Elsie.
AK:So they would have had that house set up here in about what year?
FW: 1910. They were there by '10. I don't know the exact date.
AK:But you had a sister? Two sisters?
FW: Two sisters by '10. They were born in Chevy Chase, on Rosemary Street.
AK:So then they moved out here and set up the greenhouses. You were born in '17.
FW: And another sister in '14.
AK:A sister in 1914, and then you and your twin sister were born in 1917. And that was the family.
FW: That was it.
AK:This was a family business, then.
FW: Yes, oh yes. Everybody was there to do chores. We had a chicken pen, a cow, sometimes two cows, and a big white horse to do the plowing. It was a farm family, sort of isolated. There was one house, right below this one [points to house next door]. This was built a year and a half ago, but the one above that on Jones Mill had someone living there in 1910. There were three . . . just a block of land here was separated from the original Clean Drinking property. I don't know who bought that, but he subdivided it. And across Jones Mill there was a large plot next to the old house. You know about that?
FW: The Clean Drinking Mansion it was called. I remember the old house. It was abandoned before 1920. We were always told, don't go near that old house. It was falling down.
AK:So, at that time, the heart of the city-Washington, D.C.-was a considerable distance away.
FW: Well, yeah, about nine to ten miles to the Old Center Market on 7th Street, where the Mall is now. They had wheat and corn here, alternating, when I was a boy. We had a driveway here to get to our property and from that driveway to the railroad tracks was a field. Wheat, it was beautiful. There weren't many trees. It's entirely different now. The trees have grown up there.
AK:Did your family business have a name at that time?
FW: Well, B. Winkler Florist.
AK:B. Winkler Florist. And were they wholesale or retail?
FW: They took the flowers to a commission house in Washington, sometimes on the streetcar from the lake. By then the streetcar was operating, by '10 or '11, somewhere in there. And sometimes they took a box of carnations, or sweet peas or whatever. In the '50s we sold to local florist shops in Bethesda, Rockville, Silver Spring, Kensington, and two in D.C. But earlier we delivered them to a commission house in Washington on H Street. Snell was the name of it. But it went out of business and then S.S. Penock, a Baltimore company, had a branch here in Washington.
AK:Tell me about the commission house, what would that do?
FW: Well they accepted the flowers on a ticket. They sold them and took a commission and paid my father for the flowers.
AK:Did you ever help carry them into town?
FW: Oh yes. Many times I drove down. Well, my sister went down, as early as her late teens, just to go along with him. We'd leave here at 6:30 in the morning, drive down, there was no East-West Highway. We got down there somehow, on Connecticut Avenue.
AK:There was a Connecticut Avenue?
FW: Oh, yes. Oh yes, Connecticut Avenue was there, and the development, but at the lake there was a big terminal for streetcars, and an electrical generating plant. They used water for cooling from the lake. They built the lake and I remember skating on the lake.
AK:I want to ask you about some of the recreation. But let me finish this idea of delivering the flowers. How were the flowers packaged, how did you take them down to the Commission House?
FW: Well, when I went with him he had large, five and a half, six foot light wood or timber boxes. And he would pick the flowers the day before and harden them overnight in water. Then in the early morning he'd pack them in and take them down, two to three, four boxes, whatever he had. Sweet peas and carnations early on, then some outdoor crops, too.
AK:All this carried by hand? Or did you have a wagon to take it up?
FW: Early on he probably had a wagon.
AK:At some point you had your own car?
FW: Oh yes, we had a Model T Ford, a 1917 Model T Ford. It had Eisenglass windows, you know, and he used that as his truck. It was a marginal operation. We never went without food or clothing or anything, but it was not a flourishing business. But it was effective. They survived. They grew carnations primarily in the early years. They are lightweight, and you can pack a lot of them. They had two greenhouses and built another one in '17. So they had a total of about 8000 square feet of glass. They built it the year I was born . . . I don't know how they did it.
AK:So you, personally, never delivered on the streetcars.
FW: Oh no.
AK:In your memory it was always the Model T.
FW: We had the Model T. I don't know whether he got the Model T Ford new. It was a '17, I remember well. He would tear the motor down when it got balky, and scrape the carbon off the cylinder head and put it back together again.
AK:He could maintain it.
FW: G.W. Imire had a repair shop in Bethesda and it was used occasionally but yes, I remember watching him do that and cussing a bunch. He wasn't a trained mechanic. And the animals, the chickens . . . we ate the eggs and milk, and occasionally sold milk if we had extra milk. A neighbor up, on Brookville Road would take a quart or two. My father drove us to school all the time and we'd deliver a couple of quarts of milk at the corner of Brookville and Rosemary, then he'd take us on to school.
AK:Your school was Chevy Chase Elementary? Was it called that at the time, or was it called Valley View?
FW: It could be, I don't know. I don't remember Valley View.
AK:Where was the school?
FW: Right on the very site of the present one. Just back off of Rosemary and just east of the tower circle. There was a pumping station. There were a lot of springs in there, and they got the water to fill the water tank and supply the town. It was a very well planned operation, Chevy Chase was. They had a lot of money behind it, and it was done very well. But I remember on a cold day, the tank, the tower, would sometimes overflow at the top, and there'd be big icicles hanging off the edge. Some people climbed up because they had a winding stair on the outside. Have you seen a picture of it?
FW: The [Chevy Chase] land company supplied electricity to Chevy Chase from the plant that was built for the streetcars. Francis Newlands planned and built the streetcar line on Connecticut Avenue from Calvert Street in the District, and built the trestle across the creek at Calvert Street. The generating plant would supply the streetlights and all the electric in Chevy Chase, Maryland.
AK:How did you get your electricity?
FW: We didn't have it (laughter). We didn't get electricity until '27, '26 or '27. We had oil, kerosene lamps. I studied with a kerosene lamp.
AK:How far did Connecticut Avenue come out?
FW: Well, it went up the hill from the lake to Jones Bridge Road and then it angled a little bit to the right on what is now Kensington Parkway. And it ended at the creek, I guess. It connected with the town of North Chevy Chase, which was established a little after '02, a little after Chevy Chase. It has an interesting history, too. Two men wrote it up, just two pages. We knew some people who lived in North Chevy Chase.
AK:Did you have other children around here you would play with?
FW: Well yes, I did. The next house after the next lot had a boy who was seven days older than I, and we were buddies. We played in the creek valley. We had cows and the creek valley, where we owned property, was a floodplain, was the pasture. And we played down in the pasture and in the creek. We had boats and a canoe. After one flood, someone's canoe ended up on the bank down there. So we repaired it. It was a six and a half foot canoe-a nice canoe. It was in bad shape but we fixed it up. And we eventually had a couple of boats and we made a stencil and put RCN on it, Rock Creek Navy [laughs]. And we poled them around and we swam in the creek. The creek was a beautiful, deep, flowing stream at the time. No resemblance to today. The park is a wreck down here. There's nothing there but bushes and trees. All the wildflowers have disappeared. It worries me. It was our playground. And then across the creek was pastureland also, Ray's farm, a dairy. I think he had a dozen cows. But they pastured and came under the trestle and were across the stream from us. So it was relatively open and you could cross the creek. There were a few fallen trees. It was a great life.
AK:A great place to play.
FW: Oh yeah. And safe. Only they told us, don't go near the bank when the creek is high, that's the only thing they told us.
AK:The danger would be drowning.
FW: Yes. My parents were safety conscious, but we never had any real problems.
AK:Did you ever have any injuries?
FW: Not seriously, no I didn't. I don't think we had a broken bone, any one of us.
AK:So you've got no stories to tell me about trips to the hospital?
FW: No. (laughter)
FW: There were several children near here; they were older than I. My sister Margaret was ten years older than I; she knew them. And we kept in touch with them, the Evans's, when they moved away to Bladensburg.
AK:Did you ever go to Chevy Chase Lake?
FW: Oh sure. When somebody was going to town, my mother . . . my sister Margaret went to Business High School in Washington. She had eight years in the elementary school, and then she went four years to Washington by streetcar. And my father and I would go and meet her every evening, bring her home from the school, sitting there at the lake terminal waiting for the streetcar to come.
AK:In your model T, yes. So you went to Chevy Chase Elementary with your sister. You would have been in the same grade, I guess.
FW: We went through the sixth grade there. BCC Junior-Senior High School was established, and we went there after the sixth grade.
AK:And that would have been on the site of the current Leland recreational center.
FW: Yes. On one occasion about this time I remember my mother saying, "Maybe you could begin to help your father some now."
AK:Do you remember any of your teachers?
FW: The principal was Thomas Pyle.
AK:This was the principal of . . .
FW: The principal of BCC Junior-Senior High, it was Junior and Senior High.
FW: It was a nice building. Thomas Pyle was a great man.
AK:The current Thomas W. Pyle Middle School is named after him. So you remember Thomas Pyle as your principal.
FW: He was principal. And Miss Young was the history teacher and Mrs. Bolger was my homeroom teacher. They put a new wing on with a modern chemistry lab and a shop, a technical shop underneath, and the library above. Very nice. Miss Susan Boyer was the biology teacher. I took the first advanced biology course offered. She designed it. She was a wonderful teacher. I think there were six or seven of us in the class. They were mostly looking towards premedical or animal biology, but not much botany. But she was a great teacher. And there was Miss Black. And Helen Price was the Latin teacher.
AK:You remember a lot of teachers.
FW: Oh yes, I do. Helen Price, she stayed with the system for a long time. I don't know if she was the assistant principal later on.
AK:Did everybody take Latin?
FW: I think we did. BCC has always been college preparatory. They emphasized that. We didn't take any foreign language. The shop teacher was Robert H. Best. Some of the bolts and screws were round headed-round headed bolts-and RHB were his initials. And some of the kids were starting to use it as a nickname for him, and he didn't appreciate it. [laughs] The railroad tracks were right north of the school. I just left the school grounds and passed between two houses and got on the railroad track and walked home.
AK:Following the tracks.
FW: Following the tracks right home. And I did that through Junior and Senior High School.
AK:Now is that the track that is currently the bike path?
FW: Yes. There was just a single track running from Silver Spring all the way to Georgetown. And that was fun. It was all open. There were two different engines that went down and back-Wafussah and Woofussah (laughs).
FW: They made different noises, so that's what we called them.
AK:When did you graduate from high school?
AK:What were your teenage years like here? Was there dancing or dating or that sort of thing?
FW: I never did anything. I was very close to the business and to the technology of it from early on. My father was an innovator and was interested in changes. And I went home to help him, basically. My twin sister was a star athlete at basketball and volleyball, and a good student. She was the A student, and I was not (laughter). I got through all right. I caught fire in high school.
AK:You enjoyed your studies.
FW: Yes. Biology and Chemistry, and History.
AK:Did you start at the University of Maryland right after high school?
AK:And you got your Bachelors of Science Degree there.
FW: In 1939.
FW: In Botany, yes.
AK:And then you went on and got a Masters, also in Botany.
FW: Yes, with Doctor Banford, Ronald Banford. He was voted the best lecturer on campus for many years. He was a wonderful man. I met him a month after I went over there. I went to the greenhouse at the experiment station, and there were some gladiolas growing there with tags on them. And I'd been doing some breeding work in gladiolas. So, I asked the head of the greenhouse to introduce me to the person working with gladiolas. It was Dr. Banford.
AK:So you were studying and helping out with the family business. What did teenagers do for recreation in this time period?
FW: Oh, we had the young people's group in church that I occasionally went to. My sisters did more of that, on Sunday evening. And we went to Sunday school at church. I don't know. There were dances and all. But I was not involved. I just didn't do it.
AK:I understand. And I asked you a little earlier about the lake and I think we went on to a different topic. But maybe you could tell me a little bit more about the kinds of things there were to do there.
FW: Oh. Well, there weren't any more entertainments. Earlier, there had been a dancehall. And they had bands. I understand the Marine Band had played there on occasion. The bridge from behind the circle where the cars turned around, that went over to the park-and there's a bridge there now-and to the lake itself, which had been made by damming up Coquelin Run. Some remnants of that dam are still there, although the lake's dry, and it's a stream just running through. We walked by there sometimes. Instead of walking the track, we'd drop down and walk along the lake and then cut across the field to the track and walk on. And we ice skated there. That was the big event for me. I learned to ice skate. I loved to ice skate.
AK:Did your parents ice skate?
FW: No. But I'd come home from school, get freshed up and get a pocket full of cookies and candy and go back with the skates and skate.
AK:Now, my impression is that, unlike New England, where the lakes freeze and stay that way, it isn't often that you get a freeze here.
FW: No, not now, but then we did. The year 1917 was, my father said, the coldest year they had, the year I was born. But we have a picture. Rock Creek was frozen solid. And I have a picture of it. You could take a horse across it. It was really cold. But we skated on the creek, on occasion, and on the ponds around. So that's where I learned to skate, and then went to the lake. People came from all around to skate on it. We had fires on the banks.
AK:Sounds like fun.
FW: Yeah, it was fun. It was fun. And every year we kept an eye on it, to see if it was frozen. Most years it was frozen several times. My friend, Remus Day, and I went over there to fish in the summer. They had "sunnies," so we'd catch sunfish. We brought the small ones back and put them in the creek, and we caught them for several years. They survived and multiplied.
AK:Your friend's name was Remus Day?
FW: Remus Day. And his father was Remus Day. They were a country family from upper county, the Gaithersburg area, I believe. And he worked at Columbia Country Club, the father. They were interesting. They were rural America. They had a cow and a big chicken barn and a pigpen that they had right straight up to this house here [points to neighboring house], along the border. They had a pigpen that was up off the ground. It was probably ten feet by six or seven. And they'd put in three pigs, little pigs, in the spring and throw the slops down to them and feed them. By fall, the pen was full of pigs. And so they'd slaughter them. That was always a big day. And slaughter them and hang them up to cure, great big things. That was a big day, to watch that.
AK:So Remus Day and you were the Rock Creek Navy.
FW: Yes, and my sister Elsie played with us a great deal, but she went on to the feminine things (laughs), as time went on.
AK:Right. Did you often go into Washington, D.C?
FW: Well, with my father and the flowers. I remember the development of 16th Street and the buildings, as it did develop. And occasionally with my mother to shop. She went in a couple times a year to do shopping, for school and stuff. And I remember I didn't like it, stuffy old stores, and the elevators were sort of scary to me, as a kid.
AK:How about grocery shopping?
FW: My father did the grocery shopping. And he did it in Washington at the Center Market-on Saturday, he would make a big trip. That was exciting to do. That was down right where the Mall is now, on Seventh Street above Constitution Avenue. And it was fascinating to see. I always liked to go there. I remember having walls full of rabbits, in their skin. They'd have to be cleaned. Everything was in season, of course. And my father would buy things that we didn't have. I remember when the cauliflowers were in, in the fall, from New York, they were a special item. And fruits and groceries. And he usually would buy a bag of bread at Schneider's bakery there that had a store inside, as you enter.
AK:Would this be part of his trip? He would deliver flowers and then pick the groceries up on the way?
FW: Sure. That's what we did.
AK:So Saturday could be an exciting trip into town.
FW: And then we'd come home. The kids helped clean house.
AK:Did you ever take vacations, as such?
FW: Not as you would call them. Frequently on Sunday we took short trips to Glen Echo, or we'd go hike up Sugarloaf Mountain, or drive to Frederick, as far as Frederick. If you went much farther, you were guaranteed to have a flat tire before you got back. And we didn't go to the [Chesapeake] Bay very much, just on occasion. And into Washington, seeing the new buildings, and the Arlington Cemetery. Early on, the Department of Agriculture had their experiment station right below Arlington Cemetery. We went there on occasion, just to look around. But then they moved from there to Beltsville. That's another story, the whole development of Washington.
AK:During the New Deal.
FW: And building the bridges. Washington never had a depression because the federal government was expanding, so we really didn't have a depression. But I remember when the veterans came in. Do you know the story of the veterans?
AK:The Bonus Army?
FW: The Bonus Army. I remember the crisis of that . We, by then, had moved to 8809 Jones Mill Road, in 1928. And apparently a family stopped by to ask for help and some money or whatever, and my mother sent them down to the greenhouse to see my father. I don't know whether he gave them anything or not, but there were no problems. It was a difficult time. I remember that. Oh, and the other big thing about Washington was the-in '22, I was five years old-the Knickerbocker Theater collapse [January 28, 1922].
AK:Oh, with the snow piling up on the roof. That was a tragedy.
FW: Oh, yes. About a hundred people or more were killed. My father and Margaret, my older sister, had gone to town with the flowers that Saturday afternoon. And they came back, and the next day we heard that the Knickerbocker Theater had collapsed.
AK:Now, you graduated from College Park. And then you got your Masters, and all the time you're living here?
FW: Oh, yeah, living here at home. I was a day dodger.
AK:A day student. What did you call them? Day dodgers?
FW: Yes. Several of my friends, I drove with them. They'd come by Jones Mill Road, and I'd be up there, jump in the car, and go with them. I did that for practically four years. I've walked from College Park to Chevy Chase. Not all in one time. But I've walked the whole thing several times. Believe it or not, there just wasn't any traffic on University Boulevard. When it was first built, you could walk a couple miles and not see a car.
AK:Then you joined the service. You were in the Army.
FW: Yes. We were obligated to ROTC at state universities.
AK:I see. You were in ROTC.
FW: I took the two basic years of ROTC, which was required at all state universities. So for two days a week, all of the men were in uniform. And we had drills and classes. I enjoyed that. And I joined the "Pershing Rifles," an elite group. We did silent drills-for a year.
AK:Silent drills, meaning without . . .
FW: Without command. You'd just start off, and do certain movements. And it was fun. A friend of mine did that too. That was freshman year that I joined.
AK:Did you then have to spend some time on active duty?
FW: No, we didn't get a commission. The four-year people were commissioned as second lieutenants. And some of my friends went for four years. But it was three weeks or four weeks in the summer, and I had to be here. So I chose not to do the four years.
AK:So during World War II, you were here working with the family?
FW: Yes, I was doing my Masters work. I did that part-time, too, over three years. It was a research project, coming out of an observation that I'd made at the greenhouse. And I was already doing breeding of snapdragons. I started that when I was a senior in high school.
AK:Did your father retire from the business, at some point?
FW: No, he just slowed down. But I once wrote that I didn't think I could keep up with him until he was 75 years old. He was very energetic, innovative. We were very close, of course, working until the end.
AK:Did you ever discuss or think about leaving the area?
FW: Not leaving the area, no. I remember, in August, after graduating from high school, resting in the shade one hot afternoon, I said, "You know, I think I'd probably like to go to the University of Maryland." And my father said, "Well, go on over and see what they've got." So that's what I did. In those days, there was no problem of getting in. And so I enrolled. And, fortunately, I met the head of the Botany Department the first month, Dr. Banford. And he took me under his wing, up through my graduate work. Beltsville was established by then, and my last year I worked there for maybe six weeks with a doctor that was doing the potato project, breeding better potatoes. I worked with him and saw how they were doing it. Dr. Stevenson. He was a very nice guy.
AK:Did you ever get any offers to leave this business?
FW: Well, Dr. Banford said, "Would you consider doing more graduate work?" And just once when we met on campus, he stopped and talked. I said, no, I didn't think so. I was well on the way with my snapdragon breeding, by then. And my Masters thesis grew out of the work that I started here. I had some tetraploid snapdragons that needed to be reported on, so I did that. And I told him, "No, I . . ." And he said, "Well, I didn't think you would." He knew that I was taking the chance that I could make it. It was problematic. But I had an idea to produce F1 hybrids. I don't know if you have enough biology to know- The F1 hybrid, the first case of it was with corn, field corn. And that was done in the late 20's and into 30's by Henry Wallace, who later was vice president under FDR. Henry Wallace had done that up in New York on his farm. His father was a publisher of an agricultural magazine. And the company that he formed is still in existence.
FW: Pioneer Seed. And that revolutionized corn growing. It almost doubled the production. So I decided that I was going to do the same thing with snapdragons, which was far more difficult than corn, the mechanics of doing the pollination. Corn was the perfect thing to do. It was easy to do. It was easy, relatively speaking. But that's what I was driving for. In '41, I introduced the first F1 Hybrid snapdragon. I was still in school. There was a little skepticism of it, at first, but it took off. The company that I did it through, in Chicago said, "Well, it's very nice. It's sort of pale, and I don't know what the trade'll do with it." But it became very, very popular. And then the war came, and so I had other things on the way, but I had to slow them down. My sister Barbara took over to maintain it at a low level, just to keep the one hybrid going.
AK:Where were you, at the time?
FW: Well, I was drafted in January of '43. Yeah, we were in Dr. Banford's office the day after Pearl Harbor. He called us all in to hear Roosevelt declare war. He produced three PhD's and two Masters that year from the department. And he kept us connected by mail through the whole war. We wrote to him, and he had a bulletin out every month on where everyone was.
AK:Where were you?
FW: Well, I went to basic training in Camp Hood, Texas. I had never really been west of Washington. I still remember getting on a train at Fort Meade, late in the evening, and, at twilight, going through Forest Glen here, a familiar area of the track. We didn't know where we were going. A military train going west. Three guys on a Pullman. And we didn't find out, or get an inkling until we were almost there, where we were going. So that was an adventure beyond all adventures. But I knew how to march, and most of them didn't, you know. So I went to basic training, and Camp Hood was a tank-destroyer center, built specifically for that, a brand new camp, with gas heat and everything. It was beautiful. And it stretched three-and-a-half miles, two, three avenues, with the garages for the tank destroyers, a tremendous place. A chapel in every block. And I went through basic training there in radio, radio technology. FM was the thing of the day. Oh, when we get back, boy, it's going to be the thing. So we learned military communications. And basic training. It was interesting.
AK:Where were you assigned when you finished your training?
FW: Well, I applied for officers' training, and I was accepted. And I went through that. That was another thirteen weeks. It equaled a year in college. OCS was very, very strenuous. It covered everything. And I came out a second lieutenant and was assigned to a training battalion in Camp Hood that was training tank-destroyer units with a new type of weapon, a straight-firing, three-inch gun. It was designed to beat the German tanks. It was a tremendous weapon. But I was a little older by then than the average enlistee at that time. My platoon had a bunch of western Pennsylvania coalminers' sons. One of them, he couldn't read or write. I wrote a couple letters for him and read his letters from home. A wonderful, handsome young fellow. It was a revelation to me what the rest of the world was like. Anyhow, I was assigned as Assistant S1 for the battalion staff, not in a combat company. So I never got much command experience. The office was running pretty well-I was a functionary; I signed the papers. And we had a very good staff.
AK:Were you there at the war's end?
FW: Oh, no. I went home a couple times, twice, on leave, you know, in that period. And eventually, we-well, the war changed. You never know what's next. Well, my battalion commander asked me to read the literature and discuss it with the staff, with the officers, as to what we were going to do when we shipped overseas. So I read the thing and there was nothing about that. So I got up and told them, I said, "Well, actually, sir, I don't think we're ever going to ship over as a unit." And he was sure he was going to have his tanks destroyers practicing up on the deck of the ship. (laughs) He was naïve. But he was a lieutenant colonel. He was a pickle salesman from Denver and was very nice. Anyhow, nine months later most of the second lieutenants and a few first lieutenants were relieved of their duties and assigned to replacement depot, they called it. There were about 200 of us. And we moved as a unit, very informally. We were all responsible for ourselves by then. I came home on leave and then reported to Camp Miles Standish, south of Boston, for overseas shipment. That lasted a couple of weeks. And I came home from Boston, actually, by train, for the weekend. Twice I did that. And on Monday, December 7th, I was home in bed. That was the start of the D-Day build-up. And so I reported back to Massachusetts. Shortly after that, we shipped overseas, still as a unit. And that unit- I'm bypassing a lot of other stuff. But we-if you want the military part of it, we crossed over with the Aquitania, a big British liner with 10,000 men, from Boston. And it was like, "Well, you're going to have air coverage from one side, and, in the middle, you'll get it from England. So don't worry. Those submarines can't catch us." And so we zigzagged, no problem. It was amazing. With 10,000 men onboard. It was something. We had restrictions on conversation and what you could write about. As commissioned officers, we had to read all the letters and sign the envelopes as censured-trivial maybe, but it had to be done. That's all we did onboard ship. There were nine or ten of us in a little cabin, the staterooms. The ship had been designed to be convertible to a troopship in case of war. So that's the way we crossed over, and in six days we landed in Scotland. They had double British time there. So at midnight, you could sit out on the deck and read. It was still light. We spent just one day there, then took an unlit train down to Southern England the next night, to another camp, where we lounged around and did training as a unit, just marches; some occasional lectures, a beautiful place on the Bristol Channel, in Southern England. I think I was there a little more than two months. Then we shipped, as a unit, to France and spent a week in tents over Utah Beach. That was just summer, following the invasion. We bounced around France. We went to Fontainebleau twice and went to Compiegne, as a unit. It was incredible! A few were selected if they had a specialty and were assigned to a unit. At Compiegne a small group of us was sent to billet in a large house near Vieux Moulon, a very old village in the forest. It was cold and snowy, and the Germans had been there recently. On leaving they "kindly" poured concrete into the water and sewer pipes. While there we heard distant firing of large guns or bombs from the direction of Bastone. On New Years Day a friend and I walked some miles to a small old village with a walled castle. As a botanist, you know, I wasn't of much value to the Army. But you had to enjoy it, whatever you could call it. Then, eventually, they sent us to a camp in Brittany, down below Normandy along the coast, in an old French military training facility the U.S. had taken over. We went through four weeks of infantry training. And we took off our tank-destroyer emblem, put on the crossed rifles, and we were infantry officers. So we went back to Fontainebleau. We rode down there in old railroad cars. They were "40's and eights,"-forty men or eight horses-they called them, from the first World War, small railroad cars with plank floors and straw. And you could look down and see the ties go by. Old train. Amazing! Way down into Brittany. Most of the Britons probably didn't know where Paris was. Really rural. Beautiful place! I was there for four weeks or so. And then I went back, stopped at Fontainebleau, oh, for some time. Yes, until March 25th of '45. And from there, I was assigned to the Ninth Infantry Division. Its headquarters at the time was at Remagen, on the Rhine, a key place. It took me six days to get up to my company. I eventually ended up in Company K, the 39th Infantry Regiment. I never really had had a command position in a combat unit. At Battalion Headquarters I overhead the commanding officer tell the staff to "keep Winkler here until we get this problem taken care of-I don't want to lose another second lieutenant." So I was the lieutenant in charge of the First Platoon, CO.K. Well, that morning I went up to the Company mess about 5:00 in the morning, and was told "Your platoon's the lead platoon out this morning. They're up in the house on the corner." So I went up. We went out. That was very interesting. We were fired on once, just small arms fire, some fanatic probably who just had to get his last shot in. We dropped to the ground. We never saw him, and the Second Platoon chased him away. And that was the closest I had. That was on April the 1st of '45. And then, until May, when the war was over, I was with that unit. And some days we walked. On one occasion we rode on the side of a tank. We went up through the Ruhr Valley and across the Hartz Mountains. We were heading for Berlin. But we stopped at the Elbe River, or a tributary of the Elbe. And the Russians were on the other side. One morning, soon the war was over. We were in Desau, which had been bombed twice by the Americans. It was just a terrible scene. I saw a lot of that. After the war was over individuals were given numbers based on the battles they'd been in and their time in service. My number was on the low side, so instead of shipping home I stayed with the Ninth Division as part of the army of occupation. The Ninth eventually went to Bavaria and billeted in several villages and ended up in Bad Reichenaal, a health resort town at the foothills of the German Alps. We were there to establish stability and to guard displaced persons camps. Our company officers were billeted with those of an artillery battalion in the main hotel there. I had a private room on the third floor. They had six-foot poles marking all the culverts to mark the snow levels, and so you would know where the culverts were in deep snow. We never had more than four or five inches of snow (laughs), but I learned a little skiing there.
AK:Tell me about coming home.
FW: Actually, I understand that a friend of ours, of the family, wrote a letter to the War Department and asked if I could possibly have early release because my mother was ill, and my sister and father were carrying on. So in April they said, "You're shipping out tomorrow."
AK:In April of '46.
FW: Yes. So I came home on an individual order, joined up in Paris with some others, and we shipped out of Le Havre, on a small ship, Sea Marlin. It broke down in the middle of the Atlantic on a beautiful sunny day, and it drifted south. We were heading for Bermuda. But they finally got the motor fixed. We came into New York a couple days later, as the sun was setting behind the Statue of Liberty-a site to see! Even now, I can still feel what it was like.
AK:How had things changed here, when you got home?
FW: Well, not that drastically, really. It was sort of a letdown. It was a strange period of time. I have no resentment for the time in service. It was a good introduction to the real world, and even a sort of inspiration to do better. So pretty soon I was hooked back into civilian life.
AK:Yes. You mentioned that you didn't feel as though you'd caught up to your father until he got be 75.
FW: Oh, yes. (laughs) He gradually slowed down. I converted the whole thing into a breeding station, the cut flowers were a side thing, and I was into producing the type that I had already done, the F1 hybrid. And I got two more varieties going within the next four years. And he just helped out in doing my job. I was developing new, better hybrid varieties for the growers. The use of F1 hybrids made it possible for the originator to benefit from his work. Seed crops propagated by seed are not patentable, but so long as the originator holds the parent varieties he has created he has sole control of its reproduction. If the F1 is "selfed" in an attempt to reproduce it, it breaks down into less desirable forms-color, height, etcetera-and loses its value.
AK:Am I correct that that the first variety you developed was called Maryland Pink?
FW: The first one was Maryland Pink. Eventually, I produced twenty-one other hybrids.
AK:So it then became more of a seed business?
FW: Yes. It was seed production. We did seed production here. We built a new greenhouse in 1950 just for the seed production, with narrow beds that were easy to work. It was all hand work. I hired several women, usually, for the whole season, and high school kids for the summer. My sister Barbara managed and did much of the seed production.
AK:At what point did you not have chickens and cows any more?
FW: Oh. Well, when the Depression hit, everything was gone. The food- I don't know why agricultural crops were gone. But they couldn't afford to buy hay or anything. We gave up the cows, and we gave up the chickens. And the Depression, at first, was sort of rough, I guess. But we hung in. As I say, Washington did have a reasonable time, I think.
AK:Better than most.
FW: Yes. No industry. The government was just expanding. That's why.
AK:What effect did all of that expansion have on your business?
FW: Well, the flower business, it was able to continue. We just continued in cut flowers.
AK:But then after the Depression . . .
FW: And the war.
AK:Washington grew enormously during the war and after the war. Did that have any effect on your business?
FW: Not directly. But indirectly, certainly it did.
AK:Because of the general level of prosperity?
FW: Generally high prosperity. Yes, I would say so.
AK:Who were the main purchasers of the seeds?
FW: Well, I did it through the George J. Ball Company. They introduced it. But we didn't ever give anyone an exclusive on it. And I had five or six of the major seed companies in the United States supplying the floriculture industry. But they all carried it. So they were competing. The Ball Company was very friendly and helpful. We struggled. One big company, Yoder Brothers, came in and went into snap breeding. They had a tremendous program. They flooded the market with hybrids. And we had a tough time through that period. We hung on but-they eventually gave up. By that time, we had five or six, seven varieties, too. If I may say so, I think mine were the best. And it turned out that way. The Yoders gave up. They were more wholesale, producing chrysanthemum cuttings and various supplies for the growers, and seeds.
AK:I understand that the Wells-Marion Wells especially, of Wood End mansion here-was quite a gardener.
FW: Yes, she was. She came to the greenhouse for flowers occasionally. That was early on. Chester Wells was her husband. He was a naval captain in the first World War.
AK:They built Wood End in the late 1920's.
FW: Yes. But before that, they lived in a house, a mansion that was a big white Southern-type mansion, right at the corner of-you know the driveway to Wood End now? Right on that corner, the southwest corner there, they had a beautiful home-and I wish we had pictures of that. Because it had a big porch, and he had a big English bulldog that sat on it. And we, of course, were told, "Well, just don't go near the place. It's private." But my father did a little work for them, on occasion, when they needed help with the nursery or plantings. Captain Wells, I just remember seeing him drive up the road with his chauffeur. They owned this property here [points outside, south]. They owned this, and they owned the Nick Jones property, where the nursing home is now. And then there was a part on both sides that they didn't own. And then they had a barn right opposite the entrance to Wood End. They had a little barn. They had a couple of horses and a couple of cows and a donkey. We used to hear the ee-aw, the little donkey calling, all of our early life. They never had any pigs. But they ran a nice farm. This was wheat and corn. He was a gentleman farmer. They had a big farm up in Pennsylvania.
AK:There was something I wanted to ask earlier and I missed it. You mentioned that, as a teenager, and a young man you'd go to church on Sunday, and Sunday school, and sometimes young people would get together for meetings at the Chevy Chase Presbyterian Church, the one that's still on the circle.
FW: Yes, the big church. I went there last night. Yesterday afternoon, really. Had a nice Christmas service. Yes, I've been a member there for sixty-some years.
AK:How did you meet your wife?
FW: Well, there. Yes. Well, that's another story. I haven't written that up yet. But I was back from the service and floundering around, you know. I hadn't gotten back into much of . . . I knew the young people's group. And I knew a lot of the people that were in it. One September, they were having their initial meeting, and they were going to go to Sugarloaf Mountain for a picnic. I thought, well that sounds interesting, I think I'll go. Well, I got there. I had a one-seated Plymouth coupe. And I parked it and walked over. And I got a call from a girl who was there. She came over, "Hey," she said, "can you take these two girls up with you?" I said, "Well, yeah. Why not?" So one of them was my future wife. That was in the fall of forty-seven.
AK:So, about a year and a half after you got back. You got back in April of '46.
FW: Okay. Anyhow we continued that relationship. Actually, we were engaged on January the 1st of the next year. And we were both ready, apparently, and we were a good match. She was a wonderful helper.
AK:You had children together.
FW: We have four children.
AK:Four children. Where are they?
FW: Well, David lives next door, my first son. And my daughter lives three doors that way, on the back of our old homestead. They were allowed to build there, a beautiful home, overlooking the park. And another one's in Seattle, my daughter. And a son is in Florida. My wife had a degree in chemistry from Wooster College in Ohio. She had a year in secretarial school before College, and she graduated Phi Beta Kappa. She was a brilliant woman, and she melded in. She became my secretary, among other things.
AK:This is Sara, your wife.
FW: Sara, Sara Lee Roser.
AK:I should have asked this when you were talking about the Rock Creek Navy but I understand that you have uncovered quite a few Indian artifacts over the years.
FW: Yes. I want to show them to you. They're downstairs. We discovered them all-well, I remember, my father-I guess it was in the 20's. I was probably eight years old. I remember him coming into the house and saying, "Look what I found!" And he had this perfect spearhead. And so that started it. And the rest of them were found by me or him-mostly in the last thirty or forty years. And one time a high school friend of mine said, "Hey, can I come over?" This was after my father had plowed. So I said, "Sure!" He came over and walked over the whole field and didn't find anything. (laughs) So. But they were all found by chance. And I'm in touch with a Montgomery County archeologist. I'm waiting for him to call for an appointment to come out and talk about it. He spoke at the Historical Society meeting last month. And I showed it to him there, and he was very excited over it. I had registered it as a site, with the Maryland Society. He said, "Well, I know there's a site down there somewhere. I want to come down and see it." So he called once, and I was tied up, and he has not called back, but I hope to meet with him. I was interested in archeology, but then I didn't follow through. I joined their group for a couple of years. I would love to, because there are digs up around Poolesville, and in Virginia there.
AK:Are your siblings still alive?
FW: No. I'm the only one. Margaret, Helen, and Barbara. And my twin sister, Elsie, died of cancer in 1980. She had three children She was the first woman CPA in Maryland, in 1940. And she worked over in Hagerstown, then over here. Tragic-she was a brilliant person. So, no, I'm the last one draggin' in.
AK:You've got two of children in the immediate neighborhood.
FW: That's good. I don't know what I'd do without them. They keep me busy, and I help them. And we just do a lot together. The family has been having dinner, together at Laurie's house every Sunday evening since 9-11. And David moved here about twelve months ago.
AK:And how many grandchildren do you have?
FW: I have nine.
FW: Right. They're around here somewhere [points out photographs]. There are the four kids.
AK:What's the current status of the greenhouses?
FW: Oh, they're gone. We tore them down. I just decided, with the encouragement of my wife, to do it. So we sold the business, all the seed production, the parent varieties and the right to sale and production, to Pan American Seed Company.
AK:That was in 1989?
FW: No, '92.
FW: And they are maintaining them with my name. And they actually have bought up, I think, all the competitors. Pan Am did some breeding work. Pan Am was a funny company. One branch of it was in the States, and the other branches were in Costa Rica, where they did the seed production. And here they did snap breeding and various other things. Well, the American end of it disappeared. And it was bought by the Ball Company. So Ball is now the prime horticulture research and wholesale business in the country. They're very big. I met the founder. When I was coming home from Texas, one time in 1945, I stopped in Chicago, and went to visit him. He had one of those big, semi-circular executive desks. Now how'd I get onto that?
AK:Well, I had asked you what had become of the greenhouses?
FW: Oh, right. Well, they were gradually closed down after we sold the seeds, and eventually dismantled, and the site was cleared. They were obsolete and not repairable. And we sold direct then to the retailers in the Silver Spring and Washington-Rockville area.
AK:But nobody's left in that business now, in the family.
FW: No. There's very little wholesale growing of flowers in the state of Maryland. Around Baltimore, there are several of them. But none around Washington. The flowers are imported. But the seed isn't-and actually, we sold more seed in France than we did in the United States for about five years, before we quit and before we turned it over to Pan Am. I've gotten royalties for twelve years. It's over now, but it's been very helpful. They're a good company. I've worked with them to integrate, when we did the changeover. Got to know the young woman who took over the breeding of snaps there.
AK:Now is that Ball or Pan American?
FW: Pan American. And then Pan American became integrated with Ball during that period. But it still uses the title of Pan American Seeds. And the seed is all produced in Costa Rica. I contracted most of my stuff into Costa Rica too. They have 600 people working on various things. Claude Hope ran the farm, a beautiful place. He did the production and sent it to me, cleaned it and packaged it, and we sold it.
AK:The Chevy Chase Presbyterian Church that you've been going to for sixty some years, that doesn't seem like very far away from here now. But I can imagine that-were there closer churches? Or was that the one you just chose to go to?
FW: Well, that's the one my sisters went to. My parents were not active in the church. The Methodist church up on Shepherd and Connecticut was there already. That went way back. But I don't know how they made the connection to Chevy Chase Presbyterian, to the young people's group. And my older sister met her husband there. His father was one of the founders of Chevy Chase Presbyterian.
FW: They met where the Historical Society had met up on Connecticut Avenue, in the old post office. The church had its services there for some years before they built the church. I remember when the new building was being built around 1925-I was a little boy-they laid the cornerstone.
AK:Well, so many things have changed. The East-West Highway is new, of course, relatively new.
FW: That went through in the late '30's-mid '30's. I remember standing up at the corner of Connecticut, and they were talking about-there was a bulletin board there-people could put suggestions as to what to call it. And somebody wrote "Zigzag Highway!" (laughter) I didn't add anything. As much a highway as it was, it was there. E. Brook Lee was involved in putting it in.
AK:People talk about how much things have changed around here. And of course, they have.
FW: They have.
AK:On the other hand, in many ways, it has stayed the same.
FW: Oh, it has. The old town has beautiful mansions and is well kept. Old Chevy Chase, particularly from Bradley Lane south to the circle and west to Wisconsin, more or less. They were the original ones. And different sections have been added, as time went on. Connecticut Avenue, when I was a kid, had two streetcars coming out, and a two-lane road on the west side, from-all the way. And then they put the other side in, to Taylor Street. And it stayed that way until after the war. And it just grew by increments. And Rolling Wood and-near where the firehouse is. Very, very lovely place. One of the early chairmen to the County Council. Potter, Neal Potter. Neal Potter's wife lived at that corner, Thornapple Street and Brookville Road. She was a friend of one of my sisters. Yes, that whole block, all the way from Bradley on out here, has developed in the style of exclusive communities. So it's a nice place to live.
AK:Yes. Sounds like you've had a nice life here.
FW: Yes, I have. We were on the fringes of it, but we appreciated it and joined in. All my friends, except for Remus and a couple from Kensington, came to BCC. But they all were children of families in Chevy Chase. But to get back to the water tower-the water tower was supplied from the springs right down below there. I can't think of the name of it. But there's a stream. Part of Coquelin Run starts there. And there were some big springs there, and very productive springs. And the springs were used to till a water tower. And that supplied the water for all of Chevy Chase.
AK:Well now, we've covered a lot of things, but I want to ask, before we finish, is there anything that you would like to tell me or any story you'd like to relate, any anecdote, any last thing that you would want to . . .
FW: Well, we've talked about a lot.
AK:We sure have. Yes.
FW: Well, the creek was more than the boats. We had a tent down there that we built out of an old horse wagon umbrella that my father had. And we draped some old gunnysacks around it. And my sister and I had some cooking utensils there, and we had a fire pit where we baked potatoes on occasion. Wrapped them up in mud and baked them in the fire. We made a stew. And Remus Day was around at that time too. And we swam there. I have pictures of my three sisters in the creek. I never did learn to swim, big time.
AK:But you loved to skate.
FW: Oh, yes. We loved it. We poled the boat almost up to the National Park Seminary. It was a feature here, too. Are you familiar with that? It was the National Park Seminary and National Park College, in Forest Glen. It's where the B&O goes through, west of Georgia Avenue. This Jones Mill Road section was called Brookville Road for a while, and then they changed it to Jones Mill Road. It was 88 Brookville Road, when I was a kid. But Brookville Road ran through-it's still through the old Chevy Chase and the East-West Highway melded in and took it over, and ran right-just shortly after that it crossed the creek before the Brookville Road, and went off into Ray's property, the dairy that I mentioned. And there's a section there between Jones Mill Road and the East-West Highway where they took over Brookville Road. It's the old road. I forget what they call it. They have a funny name for it, just about a half a block long. But I remember when that highway went through. We had a conflict on that I probably shouldn't mention, a conflict with the park people. When the first surveyors came through, we took the surveyors in our boat, across the creek a couple times, when they wanted to get across. And they trusted us. But when they came through, they ran the line right through the greenhouses, up through our property, ran it right through the greenhouses. They wanted to take in Clean Drinking Spring.
AK:They wanted to take that into the park?
FW: Have you been there? We'll have to go down there.
FW: Wells gave his whole part of his property and everything, the floodplain, he gave that to the Park Commission. He was chairman for a year or two. And he was a very distinguished gentleman and a very capable man. Anyhow, my father contacted a lawyer who wrote a half-page letter to the Park Commission, and they took the line down and changed it. (laughs) So. That's the way it was. They were difficult to deal with. They didn't appreciate our being here, I don't think. They just didn't know the history. I thought they were on the rude side, on occasion.
FW: But that's natural.
AK:Well now, the greenhouses are gone, but what happened to the property?
FW: Well, I still own it. I gave one acre of it, the back of it, to my daughters, and extended their lot down. They have a beautiful vista into the Park. And my son-in-law mows my grass, (laughs) and his too. And my daughter, she likes to mow the grass.
AK:What ever happened to Remus Day?
FW: I don't know. When the war came, I don't know. I don't know. I understand he was in the insurance business. And I didn't contact him or we didn't . . .
AK:He wasn't living here after the war?
FW: No, no. The family broke up. And the parents died.
FW: And their parents were the ages of my parents. And they had four kids. They went various ways. We were not close to them. I was close to Remus.
AK:Because he was your friend.
FW: Sure, he was a friend.
AK:Well, Mr. Winkler, thank you very much. It's been a pleasure talking with you.
FW: Well, thank you for coming.
Baltimore, Maryland 45
Banford, Ronald 19,27
BCC Junior Senior High School 15
Best,Robert H 16
Bolger, Mrs 16
Bonus Army, The 24
Brookville Road 4,49
Business High School 14
Calvert Street 11
Camp Hood, Texas 29, 30
"No Gain" Estate 3
RockCreek Park 4
16thStreet 8, 22
BrooksvilleRoad 3, 47
ConnecticutAvenue 8,11,12, 46, 47
East16th Street 8,
Jones Mill Road 3, 24, 25, 49
Jones Ridge Road 3,12
Kensington Parkway 12
Rosemary Circle 2
Rosemary Street 2, 5
Chevy Chase Elementary 11,14
Chevy Chase Presbyterian 40, 46
Clean Drinking Mansion 7
College Park 24, 25
Coquelin Run 20, 48
Costa Rica 44, 45
Day, Remus 21, 49, 51
East West Highway 46, 49
Florist, B.Winkler 7
GeorgeJ. Ball Company 38
Hayes Manor 3
Hope, Claude 45
Jones, Nick 39
LongIsland, New York l
Maryland Pink 36
Maryland Society, The 42
Montgomery County 3, 42
NewYork 22, 28, 35
Normandy 6, 32
Old Chevy Chase, 47
Pan American Seeds 45
Paris, France 1, 33, 35
Pershing Rifles Group 25
Potter, Neil 47
Pyle, Thomas 15
Roser,Sara Lee 41 ,
Sugarloaf Mountain 40
Thomas W. Pyle Middle School 15
Universityof Maryland 18, 27
Veltheim, Switzerland 1
Town of Cherrydale 1
Wallace, Henry 28
WashingtonD.C 7, 8, 14, 22, 23, 24, 37, 38, 45
Winkler, Barbara 28,43
Winkler, Elsie 22,43
and advanced education 26 28
and military service 25 26
on childhood 8 17
on development of Chevy Chase 11 12
on early education 14 18
on parents' background 6
Winkler, Margaret 14, 43
Wood End 3 9
Yoder Brothers 38
Young, Miss 16